Lars Ramskold

"Techniques and tools for Roman die engraving and coin production ; evidence from the 4th century"

By coincidence, fate had it that Lars gradually acquired certain key skills of great use for a numismatist. In his teens he worked as a silver smith apprentice, learning the properties of precious metals, things like annealing, metal fatigue, casting, soldering and shaping. Then, as a palaeontologist, earning his PhD in 1985, he learned how to clean and study tiny and fragile fossils under the stereo microscope. He also learned scientific methods and how to apply them to the study of fossils, which resulted in nearly 50 publications, some in the journals Nature and Science.

Then, as a dentist, he specialized in root canal treatments, applying all of the above to challenging cases, developing methods to work in the tiny hollows and canals in teeth. In his numismatic work, he has combined all of the above skills to become an expert in cleaning ancient coins and in detecting forgeries, doing all work through a stereo microscope. His main area of study is the reign of Constantine I. 

Finally, being a true scientist, he publishes the results of his studies and since 2009 he has authored 15 papers on Constantinian coins, totalling nearly 1,000 pages. These are available on,, and on ResearchGate, Several more studies are in the pipeline.